Development stages of childhood
Early childhood follows the infancy stage, and begins with toddlerhood when the child begins speaking or taking steps independently. While toddlerhood ends around age three when the child becomes less dependent on parental assistance for basic needs, early childhood continues approximately through years seven or eight. According to the National Association for the Education of Young Children, early childhood spans the human life from birth to age eight.
Middle childhood begins at around age seven or eight, approximating primary school age and ends around puberty, which typically marks the beginning of adolescence.
Adolescence is usually determined by the onset of puberty. However, puberty may also begin in preadolescents. The end of adolescence and the beginning of adulthood varies by country and by function, and even within a single nation-state or culture there may be different ages at which an individual is considered to be (chronologically and the legally) mature enough to be entrusted by society with certain tasks.
A Child’s Journey of Care
- Starts with family planning & ends at 1 yr of age
- At any stage additional care may be required
Looking after the Mother
Care of the child begins with the mother, early intervention through prenatal care & prevention of prenatal complications.
- Family Planning
- Pre natal care
- prenatal period
Promoting Child Health
- Parental responsibility
- Health Checks
- Sexual identity
- Teen pregnancy
- Substance abuse
Challenges on child wellness:-
- Child labor
Current Focus of Health Care
- Emphasis on prevention of disease & disability
- Emphasis on brief hospital stays
- Transfer of acute care to home-based nursing services
- Trends in maternal & infant health
Continuing Gaps in Health Care
- Low-birth-weight (LBW) and very-low-birth weight (VLBW) births
- Infant mortality rates (IMR)
- Maternal mortality in identified groups
- A community is a locality-based entity composed of systems for supplying societies needs
- A well community allows for maximum potential health in its inhabitants and for a focus on well children, who are the future of any sustainable community
- Important indicators of wellness are IMR, death rates and the rate of reported infectious disease
- Issues such as oppression, poverty, slavery & abuse & environmental conditions can significantly impact on child wellness
- Care of the child begins with the mother, early intervention through prenatal care & prevention of perinatal complications
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