## Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics

**Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics** is the study of relationship between heat and work with chemical reactions or with physical changes of state within the confines of the laws of thermodynamics. The subject involves the study of laboratory measurements of various thermodynamic properties and also the study of application of mathematical methods and calculations to the chemical equations.

The subject of **chemical Thermodynamics** is based on the laws of thermodynamics. The study of laws of thermodynamics leads to the derivation of the fundamental equations of thermodynamics or the equations of Gibbs.

J William Gibbs, who was an American mathematical physicist published a series of papers in which he showed mathematically how to determine the thermodynamic equilibrium of chemical equations.

Heat and work are both forms energy. They are related in a sense that one can be transformed into the other form. Heat from steam can be used to run a train, or the friction between two things can cause heat. Heat and work can be described using the same unit of measure. Calorie is used as a unit of measure and it refers to the amount of heat required to raise one gram of water one degree Celsius. Heat energy is measured in kilocalories or 1000 calories. A fully grown man requires 2000 calories or 2Kcal of energy everyday to perform his routine activities. On the other hand Joules or Kilojoules is used to measure energy required to perform work. One Joule is equivalent to the energy required to lift a hundred gram object in air to a height of one meter. One Calorie is equal to 4.187 Joules.

C = q/MΔT

Where C = Specific heat in cal/g -̊C

q = heat added in calories

m = mass in grams

ΔT = rise in temperature of the material̊C

The value for C for water is 1.00 cal/g- ̊C

**The first law of thermodynamics**

Energy is conserved. In other words energy cannot be created or destroyed. One change the form of energy but it cannot create it or destroy it.

The mathematical statement of the first law is phrased in terms of a process. Given any change or process.

Initial state —– Final State

ΔU = U_{final }– U_{initial}

**The second law of thermodynamics**

It is impossible for heat to move from spontaneously from acold body to a hot body with no other result,

It is impossible to convert heat quantitatively into work with no other result

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