Capital Market is a market for securities. Securities include debt and equity. These are the places where both Corporations and the Govt can raise long-term funds. It is a place where money is provided for both long-term and short-term periods.
The market instruments which are exchanged are Corporate Equities; Agency Securities and Mortgages; Funds Shares; Corporate Bonds; Treasuries and Open Market; Municipal Securities.
Capital markets are of two types ‘primary market’ and ‘secondary markets’. Of the two types of markets, much significance is given to the secondary markets.
In primary markets, new stock or shares are sold to investors and/or general public. When the shares are bought by the investors, its called ‘underwriting’.
In secondary markets, existing shares and stock are bought and sold among investors or traders and stock-brokers. The securities traded include shares issued by companies, unit trusts, derivatives, pooled investment products and bonds. The initial offering of stocks and bonds to investors is done in the primary market and the subsequent trading is done in the secondary market.
The major players in the capital markets are
- Foreign investors
- Fund Managers
Role of Capital Markets
- Raising capital for business
- Mobilizing savings for investment
- Facilitating growth of corporations
- Profit sharing
- Corporate governance
- Govt capital raising for development projects
- A barometer to the economy
The major Stock Exchanges in the world are
- New York Stock Exchange
- Tokyo Stock Exchange
- London Stock Exchange
- Shanghai Stock Exchange
- Hong Kong Stock Exchange
- Toronto Stock Exchange
- Frankfurt Stock Exchange
- Madrid Stock Exchange
- Bombay Stock Exchange
- Australian Securities Exchange
- Sao Paulo Stock Exchange
- National Stock Exchange of India
- Swiss Exchange
- Nordic Stock Exchange
- Milan Stock Exchange
- Shenzhen Stock Exchange
Learn more about Capital Markets
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