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What is Dalton’s Atomic Theory?
Atomic theory is the theory of matter, which states that matter is comprised of discrete units called atoms. In the 19th century in the field of chemistry found evidence that matter indeed behaved as if it were made up of particles.
The word atom is derived from the ancient Greek adjective atomos, ‘indivisible’) was applied to the basic particle that constituted a chemical element, because the chemists of the era believed that these were the fundamental particles of matter.
John Dalton studied and expanded and developed the law of multiple proportions: if two elements can together form more than one compound, then the ratios of the masses of the second element which combine with a fixed mass of the first element will be ratios of small integers.
Dalton also believed atomic theory could explain why water absorbed different gases in different proportions: for example, he found that water absorbed carbon dioxide far better than it absorbed nitrogen. Dalton hypothesized this was due to the differences in mass and complexity of the gases’ respective particles. Indeed, carbon dioxide molecules (CO2) are heavier and larger than nitrogen molecules (N2).
Dalton proposed that each chemical element is composed of atoms of a single, unique type, and though they cannot be altered or destroyed by chemical means, they can combine to form more complex structures (chemical compounds). This marked the first truly scientific theory of the atom, since Dalton reached his conclusions by experimentation and examination of the results in an empirical fashion.
Atoms were thought to be the smallest possible division of matter until 1897 when J.J. Thomson discovered the electron through his work on cathode rays. Through experimentation, Thomson discovered that the rays could be deflected by an electric field (in addition to magnetic fields, which was already known). He concluded that these rays, rather than being a form of light, were composed of very light negatively charged particles he called “corpuscles” (they would later be renamed electrons by other scientists).
Thomson believed that the corpuscles emerged from the molecules of gas around the cathode. He thus concluded that atoms were divisible, and that the corpuscles were their building blocks. To explain the overall neutral charge of the atom, he proposed that the corpuscles were distributed in a uniform sea of positive charge; this was the plum pudding model as the electrons were embedded in the positive charge like plums in a plum pudding.
J.J. Thomson Atomic Theory
J.J. Thomson’s atomic theory, proposed in the late 19th century, is an early model of the structure of atoms. According to Thomson’s theory, atoms are composed of negatively charged electrons surrounded by a cloud of positive charge. This model of the atom, known as the “plum pudding” model, was based on Thomson’s interpretation of the results of his cathode ray experiments.
In Thomson’s model, the electrons are free to move within the atom and the positive charge of the nucleus is balanced by the negative charges of the electrons. Thomson also discovered that atoms of the same element can have different atomic masses, and concluded that the atomic number of an element is proportional to the number of positive charges in the nucleus.
While Thomson’s atomic theory was a significant step forward in the understanding of the structure of atoms, it was later proven to be limited by its inability to explain the observed spectra of atoms and the behavior of electrons in different energy levels. Nevertheless, Thomson’s work laid the foundation for the development of modern atomic theory and helped to establish the field of atomic physics.Top of Form
Rutherford’s Atomic Theory
Ernest Rutherford was a New Zealand-born physicist who made important contributions to the understanding of the structure of atoms. His atomic theory, proposed in 1911, was based on the results of his famous gold foil experiment.
Rutherford’s atomic theory stated that:
- Atoms are mostly empty space, with a tiny, positively charged nucleus at the center and negatively charged electrons orbiting around it.
- The nucleus is much denser than the surrounding electrons and contains almost all of the mass of the atom.
- The electrons are held in their orbits around the nucleus by the electromagnetic force.
- The number of positive charges in the nucleus determines the atomic number of the element and its chemical properties.
Rutherford’s theory was a significant departure from J.J. Thomson’s “plum pudding” model of the atom, which postulated that the electrons were distributed evenly throughout the atom. The results of Rutherford’s gold foil experiment showed that most of the positive charge and mass of the atom was concentrated in a tiny nucleus, completely changing the understanding of the structure of atoms.
Rutherford’s atomic theory was later expanded upon by Niels Bohr, who incorporated quantum mechanics into the model to explain the observed spectra of atoms and the behavior of electrons in different energy levels. Today, Rutherford’s atomic theory forms the basis of our understanding of the structure of atoms and the way they interact with one another.
The gold foil experiment
In the gold foil experiment, he shot alpha particles at a thin sheet of gold, measuring their deflection with a fluorescent screen. Given the very small mass of the electrons, the high momentum of the alpha particles and the unconcentrated distribution of positive charge of the plum pudding model, he expected all the alpha particles to pass through the gold sheet without significant deflection. To his astonishment, a small fraction of the alpha particles experienced heavy deflection.
This led Rutherford to propose a planetary model in which a cloud of electrons surrounded a small, compact nucleus of positive charge. Only such a concentration of charge could produce the electric field strong enough to cause the heavy deflection.
While experimenting with the products of radioactive decay, in 1913 radio chemist Frederick Soddy discovered that there appeared to be more than one element at each position on the periodic table. The term isotope was coined by Margaret Todd as a suitable name for these elements.
That same year, J.J. Thomson conducted an experiment in which he channeled a stream of neon ions through magnetic and electric fields, striking a photographic plate at the other end. He observed two glowing patches on the plate, which suggested two different deflection trajectories. Thomson concluded this was because some of the neon ions had a different mass. The nature of this differing mass would later be explained by the discovery of neutrons in 1932.
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