General Enegy Balance in Open Systems


Write and simplify the general energy balance for these open systems.  Clearly state/draw where point 1 and point 2 are in your system (this will affect your answer). State if heat and shaft work are positive or negative.

a. Water flows through a heat exchanger and is heated from 20°C to 50°C.  The inlet and outlet pipe diameters are the same and have the same elevation.
b. A river flows over a dam and falls on a turbine which turns a shaft connected to a generator. The water velocity, temperature and pressure are essentially unchanged.
c. Water is pumped from a valley lake to a hill-top community, high above the valley. The pipe diameter is constant and the pump is located in the middle of the pipeline. Energy dissipated by friction is transferred to the surroundings through the pipe wall.
d. A chemical reaction takes place in a continuous flow reactor.  The reactor has no moving parts and kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible.


The question belongs to Chemical Engineering and the question is about general energy balance in open systems. The questions deal with heat exchange and temperature change due to friction, motion, etc.

Note: The solution is in handwritten form.

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