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Debate on Whether Gymnosperms are a Paraphyletic Group

Question

You are given the following characters for several taxa of plants. Draw a cladogram from these data. Show your work. Use red algae as your outgroup. Remember to indicate on your tree when each derived trait evolved.

There is an ongoing debate in the scientific literature about whether gymnosperms (which include ginkgos and pines but not any of the other groups listed on your table) are a paraphyletic group. Given your results from this exercise, what would you conclude?

Summary

This question belongs to biology and discusses about a debate in the scientific literature about whether gymnosperms are a paraphyletic group.

Total word count: 24

 

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