Electromagnetism is one of the fundamental phenomenon in nature. It is responsible for almost all the phenomena in our daily life. Electromagnetism spans both electric fields and magnetic fields. When observed individually, electricity and magnetism behave differently and when unified, we can observe that both are interdependent on each other and they cannot be separated from each other.
In order to fully understand Electromagnetism, we have to look at the four laws that govern electricity and magnetism. These are Gauss’s laws in Electrostatics, Gauss’s law in Magnetism, Ampere’s law and Faraday’s law. These laws were combined by James Clerk Maxwell in the year 1864 to give a complete set of relation and connection between both the forces of electricity and magnetism.
Gauss’s law in Electrostatics
The electric flux through any closed surface is proportional to the enclosed electric charge.
Take an example of an electric field, a plane surface area and a normal unit vector at an angle in co-ordination with the electric field, then the resultant electric flux is considered as a scalar product. This defines electric flux as volt multiplied by meter.
Gauss’s law in Magnetism
The magnetic field has divergence equal to that of zero.
Gauss’s law can be applied to a magnetic flux through a closed surface. As magnetic field lines are looped in circles, The magnetic field lines are all looped for all closed surfaces. Hence a closed surface exhibits zero magnetic flux.
The line integral of magnetic field intensity H about any closed path is exactly equal to the net current enclosed by that path.
The only dependant in Ampere’s law is the current that is flowing through the wire and not the diameter of the wire. The magnetic field is dependant on the current that is enclosed in the loop of the wire.
The induced electromotive force (EMF) in any closed circuit is equal to the time rate of change of the magnetic flux through the circuit.
The law states that independent of the change in the induced magnetic force, voltage will be generated. This can be either the change in the magnetic field or by a magnet moving toward or away from the coil of wire or moving the coil toward or away from the magnetic field will produce voltage.
These four laws are primary to the functioning of the modern electric system. Ampere’s law is useful in the production and maintenance of transformers. Faraday’s law is useful in the production of power. Without these laws, the concept of power production and power distribution would not have been possible.
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