Blood Serum and Types of Blood Groups
Blood Serum is a component that is a watery fluid which has proteins and that breaks off when blood coagulates. It consists of plasma minus fibrinogen. Serum has nearly the same 55% of volume as plasma. The division of biological science is concerned with antigen and antibodies reactions in serum are called serology.
Blood types are divided into 4 major groups are discussed and listed below:
Human blood ABO groups were discovered by Karl Landsteiner who was awarded by a noble price in the year 1930.ABO blood groups are based upon the certain proteins in plasma the membrane of RBCs that are coded by genes. These proteins are known as antigens. In this manner the blood type refers to the particular kind of antigen present in the plasma membrane of RBC. An antigen is a molecular agent that stimulates the immune system to produce antibodies. These antigens are attached on the surface of the RBCs called surface markers. Antigens are of two types A and B are called as agglutinogens. Where two antibodies occur in blood plasma can react with antigens of A and B. Depending on the distribution of antigens and antibodies four types of blood groups are discovered in human beings are such as, A, B, AB & O.
|A||A||Anti-B or b or Alpha (α)|
|B||B||Anti-A or a or Beta (β)|
|AB||A and B||None|
|O||None||Both A and B|
The most important factor of blood group is RH-factor. 1940 Landsteiner and Weiner discovered the presence of another antigen in the plasma membrane of RBCs of rhesus monkeys. So they named it as Rh-factor. This Rh factor has positive type called as Rh-positive (Rh+) and negative type as Rh-negative (Rh-).
RH Positive individuals do not produce RH antibodies, as a result that would lead to a reaction of antigens-antibodies. Where as in RH-negative individuals naturally do not have antibodies but they are capable of producing them when the body feels necessary to do so. Stimulation can occur when an RH+ person receives RH+ donor, so the RH antigen on the donor RBCs will stimulate the recipient’s immune system to make RH antibodies. In case if an RH- person receives a transfusion with RH+ blood does not usually have an antigen- antibody reaction. Because it is said that immune system takes 1-2 months of time span to produce sufficient antibodies.
During that period RBCs will be removed and changed naturally. As, there are less chances to cause problem in case of 1st transfusion. But the recipients are now RH stimulated and sub-sequent RH+ transfusion may cause problems.
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