Blood is the largest organ in an animal that flows through thousands of miles of arteries, veins and capillaries. As, these blood vessels carry blood to every other organ and keeping them functioning and to do well. Blood is a liquid that has connective tissues and consists of cells. Cells are surrounded by a matrix, which develops and has the ability to modify into other forms of connective tissue. On an average, a human adult has about 5 liters of blood circulating in his/her body continuously. This circulation of blood helps the body to maintain homeostasis, which is in three general ways such as: transportation, regulation and protection.
Components of blood:
Plasma: Plasma creates up to 55 percent of blood volume and the remaining 45 percent makes up by cellular component. Plasma is a pale yellow liquid without blood cells and platelets and has about 90 percent of water. The other 10 percent includes a variety of dissolved substances.
Plasma Protein: plasma protein has three different types of protein such as albumins, globulins and blood clotting proteins.
The Albumins: Albumins are produced by liver in a group of several small proteins that forms up with half of human plasma protein content. This albumin helps to maintain the water balance between blood and fluid that surrounds the tissue cells. Albumins also have the responsibility for transport of free fatty acids, for blood viscosity and osmotic potential.
The Globulins: The globulins are the diverse group of plasma proteins. In humans, the electrophoresis can separate alpha, beta and gamma globulins. These alpha and beta globulins transport proteins which bind and transports fat, cholesterol and fat- soluble vitamins. Erythropoietin hormone that stimulates the production of red blood cell is an alpha-globulin. The gamma-globulin includes most of the body’s anti-bodies. Alpha and beta globulins are formed in liver, while gamma- globulins are originated in lymph tissue.
Blood Clots: Blood clotting or coagulation, is the most important process that prevents excessive bleeding when a blood vessel is injured. Fibrinogen is an important blood clotting protein. While platelets and proteins work together to stop the bleeding by forming a clot over the injury.
Red Blood Cells: blood gets red in color from its abundant red blood cells. These red blood cells are also known as Erythrocytes. Carrying of oxygen and nutrients in blood is the primary function of red blood cells or RBC. Where mature RBCs cannot divide or carry on many life processes characteristic of other cells. As a result during its development each erythrocyte loses its nucleus and other organelles. Without the organelles, a red blood cell takes a biconcave disk shape. This shape is flexible and allows RBC to bend, so that they can pass easily through the tiny blood capillaries. This shape provides more space for hemoglobin molecules as well. Hemoglobin is an oxygen carrying molecule of the RBCs. Red Blood cells has a life span of 120 days. In an average human, the number of RBCs is about 5000000 per. Cu. Mm. In case for males the number is 5500000 per. Cu. Mm. and for females 4500000.
Platelets: Platelets play a prominent role in blood clotting through release of thrombokinase and help to heal wounds. These platelets circulating in blood are small cell fragments but not the entire cells. These fragments are developed from larger cells called megakaryotes. These platelets are also known as thrombocytes. These platelets have a life span of 8-10 days and these are destroyed by reticulo-endothelial system.
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